What is Broken Window Theory in Criminology

The Broken Windows Theory is a theory of criminology according to which apparent crime signs, civil disorder and, antisocial behavior results in an urban environmental situation that promotes further disease and crime, considering severe crimes. This theory proposes that the policing methods targeting minor offenses, such as loitering, vandalism, jaywalking, public drinking, and fare evasion, help build an atmosphere including lawfulness and order, thus averting more significant crimes.

This theory was established in an article (1982) by Social scientists, including George L.Kelling and James Q.Wilson. It was further universalized in the 1990s by Mayor Rudy Giuliani and NYC Police Commissioner William Bratton, whose policing policies affected this theory. (Wilson, James, Q., Kelling, George, L.,1982). One of the adherents of Killing, David L. Gunn, executed procedures and policies grounded on the broken windows theory in his occupancy as “President” of the New-York-city transit authority. Among his leading efforts, one was to guide a movement from (1984 to 1990) to clear graffiti from the subway-system of New-York. Significantly, Bratton controlled the Police to stringently impose laws against public drinking, subway fare-evasion, graffiti, and public urination. Bratton resuscitated the Cabaret Law of New York City, a formerly dormant forbidding era forbid on dancing an unlicensed-establishments. During the later 1990s, the New York Police Department shut down most of the New York city’s approved night-spots opened for Illegal Dancing. In (1994), when he was appointed as a Police Commissioner of  New-York-City Police, Bratton presented his Broken Windows theory based on the “Quality of Life Initiative.” This inaugural cracked-down on disorderly behavior,  panhandling, street prostitution, public drinking, and unsolicited-windshield washing, along with other attempts of such kind to acquire cash from the drivers that were stopped in the crowd of vehicles. When Bratton resigned (1996), crimes had fallen almost forty percent in the New-York city, and the Homicide Rate had been minimized by half. According to research about offenses in NYC by William Sousa and Kelling in 2001, the crime rates, including minor and significant, fell after programs described above, were executed.

Moreover, crime persisted in decreasing for the succeeding ten years. Such declination recommended that policies that were based on Broken-Windows-Theory were influential. (Corman, Hope, Mocan, Naci ., 2005) Yet, other researchers could not find a causal relationship between the acceptance of these policies and depreciation in crime rates. (Harcourt, Bernard, E., Ludwig & Jens., 2006). A study (2017) discovered that when (NYPD) obstructed the aggressive enforcement of minor-legal statutes in the years of 2014 and 2015, public complaints of 3 leading crimes (felony assault, burglary, and grand-larceny) reduced (somewhat with huge error-bars) during as well as after precise cut down in proactive-policing. There wasn’t any statistically-significant impact on other leading crimes, including rape, murder, robbery, or Grand Theft auto. This out-of is considered intriguing the prevalent-scholarship and conventional-wisdom on legal-compliance and authority by connoting that aggressively-enforcing “Minor Legal Statutes” incites brutal acts of criminality. (Sullivan, C.M., O’Keeffe, Z.P., 2017)

NYC Transportation has ranged from strong Dutch-Authority (in 17th Century), doctrine during Industrial-era (in the 19th Century) and approximately half of 20th Century, to the cronyism during an era of Robert-Moses. In the early 2000s, several ideas for improving or expanding the New-York-city Transit System have occurred in multiple stages of planning, discussion, or initial-funding. “Mayor Michael Bloomberg” offered several proposals to enhance Mass Transit Usage and improve the overall Transportation Infrastructure. The two significant airports present in New York City are being developed. “LaGuardia Airport” started a (US$4 billion) redevelopment in the Spring (2016), with the whole renovation organized to be done by the year 2021. (Tishman, Dan, et al., 2015). The Subway has also got various major-expansions. The “Fulton Center” started construction (in 2005), and it has inaugurated in November-2014. The tunnel structure began (in 2008), and work began on September 13, 2015. There exist many meaningful efforts to renovate and improve commuter-rail. The 1st-phase, comprising the West-end multitude, started in June (2017), while the ground for the 2nd phase was broken during August 2017.

In the late 1990s, legal, popular, and political concerns were elevated across United-States about Police Harassment of the minority-groups in their routine encounters with Law Enforcement. These worries gained attention on the level to which the Police restricted people on highways for Driving while Black. Furthermore, the concerns arose about racial-bias on the pedestrian-stops of public by NYC police proclaimed on the “zero tolerance” programs to control “quality-of-life” crimes, and policing-strategies focused in minority-communities that marked drug-trafficking and Illegal Gun Possession. These patterns prompted anger reactions among the minority-citizens that broadened the rupture among different ethnic or racial groups in their faith in the NYC police, evoking a predicament of lawfulness with moral, legal, and Political dimensions.

(Lundman, R. J., and Kaufman, R. L., 2003)

izzah ahmed

This is Izzah, a content writer and editor who creates SEO-friendly content and has experience in academic writing. Backed by 10 years of experience in writing and editing, she is equipped with the skill to create content that is backed by thorough research and has impeccable structure.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *